Soviet Union – UAOC http://uaoc.net/ Sat, 08 Jan 2022 18:29:48 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://uaoc.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-1-150x150.png Soviet Union – UAOC http://uaoc.net/ 32 32 Austrian solution for Ukraine? https://uaoc.net/austrian-solution-for-ukraine/ Sat, 08 Jan 2022 18:09:43 +0000 https://uaoc.net/austrian-solution-for-ukraine/ After World War II, Austria, like Germany, was divided between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. Like any spectator of The third man the film knows that Vienna, like Berlin, had four zones of occupation. Unlike the solution for Germany, the Western powers and the Soviet Union concluded a state treaty in 1955, which […]]]>

After World War II, Austria, like Germany, was divided between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. Like any spectator of The third man the film knows that Vienna, like Berlin, had four zones of occupation. Unlike the solution for Germany, the Western powers and the Soviet Union concluded a state treaty in 1955, which allowed Austria to be unified and neutral. This resulted in the withdrawal of Soviet and Western forces from Austria, the only time the USSR withdrew its forces from Europe during the Cold War. Looking at the situation in Ukraine today, why wouldn’t a similar solution work?

The United States and its Western partners could come up with a proposal to the Russian government that both sides guarantee Ukraine’s neutrality. In return, Russia would also accept the Ukrainian state and neutrality and withdraw its troops from the Ukrainian border. The treaty could also encompass the contentious issues of US anti-ballistic missile systems in Europe and Russian troop deployments under a new agreement on conventional forces in Europe. The Donbass region, which is already largely lost to Ukraine, could become part of Russia as part of the deal. Crimea would also remain part of the Russian Republic. Ukraine could then focus on building its own political and economic system just as West Germany did without East Germany.

While it is true that each country has the right to determine its alliances, this applies equally to the United States and the West itself and not just to Ukraine. The hasty and unprepared declaration at the NATO Bucharest 2008 summit on Ukraine and Georgia’s possible NATO membership was a major strategic mistake that was perpetrated by the Bush administration despite the German and French opposition. Even if Ukraine wishes to become a member of NATO and the European Union, there is no reason that this is acceptable or in the interest of the United States or the EU.

If no one wants to talk about spheres of influence, it is clear that both strategic concerns and geographic proximity favor Russia when neither the United States nor its NATO allies would want to get involved in a war against it. ‘Ukraine. It would be the equivalent of the Cuban Missile Crisis, but this time with the roles reversed. It is more than likely that the current Russian military pressure is aimed at achieving a diplomatic rather than a military solution. The cost to Russia of an invasion of Ukraine would be prohibitive and destroy any prospect of a peaceful European future and increase the danger of a wider war. It is true that Moscow violated the 1994 Budapest Memorandum which promised Ukrainian sovereignty in return for Kiev to give up its nuclear arsenal, so any deal must be a treaty, not a memorandum. If Russia then violated the treaty, the consequences would be more serious.

If Ukraine is lucky, it can become the next Austria. It is neither in the interests of Ukraine nor of the West to perpetuate the strategic ambiguity that now exists. NATO is not weaker with a neutral Austria and would be more stable without Ukraine’s lingering ambiguity. US security commitments are under heavy demand in both Europe and the Middle East, and the Chinese challenge now requires a major strategic reassessment in Washington. A Russian invasion or escalation in Ukraine would increase America’s strategic reach and weaken its position in Asia. Given his recent experience in Afghanistan, he does not need another unstable and corrupt government with a large minority population as an ally. Now is the time for cold realism rather than outdated nostalgia for American exceptionalism.

This leaves open the question of EU membership, which in many ways triggered the crisis in 2014. Austria, although not a member of NATO, joined the European Union in 1995 without objection from the USSR. It would be a problem for the EU, not for NATO. Given the widespread enlargement fatigue which has blocked, if not killed, any EU expansion in the Western Balkans and the development of the Eastern Partnership as an alternative to membership, Ukraine’s membership would be at best a distant prospect.

It is not in the interest of either the West or Russia to allow the confrontation over Ukraine to continue. When the US and Russian teams start negotiating on Ukraine this month, they should look to Austria for their way out.

Stephen F. Szabo is Adjunct Professor, BMW Center for German and European Studies, Georgetown University, and author of Germany, Russia and the rise of the geoeconomy.

Image: Reuters.


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Kazakh regime comes to an end in “revolution”, dissident leader says https://uaoc.net/kazakh-regime-comes-to-an-end-in-revolution-dissident-leader-says/ Thu, 06 Jan 2022 20:46:11 +0000 https://uaoc.net/kazakh-regime-comes-to-an-end-in-revolution-dissident-leader-says/ Published on: 06/01/2022 – 21:46Amended: 06/01/2022 – 21:44 Paris (AFP) – The regime that has ruled Kazakhstan since the fall of the Soviet Union is coming to an end in a popular revolution where people have united for the first time to express their anger, a France-based opposition leader said on Thursday. Mukhtar Ablyazov, former […]]]>

Published on: Amended:

Paris (AFP) – The regime that has ruled Kazakhstan since the fall of the Soviet Union is coming to an end in a popular revolution where people have united for the first time to express their anger, a France-based opposition leader said on Thursday.

Mukhtar Ablyazov, former energy minister and bank chairman wanted in his home country on various charges, also called in an AFP interview a Russian-led military intervention an “occupation” and urged them Kazakhs to stand up to foreign forces.

Kazakhstan, often considered the most stable state in Central Asia under its first post-Soviet president Nursultan Nazarbayev and his successor Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, has been torn apart by its most serious protests which have left dozens dead and hundreds of inmates.

“I think the regime is at an end. Now it’s only a question of how long,” Ablyazov, who heads the Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan (QDT) party, told AFP and urged the protests. via its social networks. .

“Literally in three days a revolution has taken place, and it’s really a revolution in public consciousness … and people have understood that they are not weak,” he added.

After years of discontent with economic problems, “the pent-up frustration has exploded. The time has come and everything has exploded.”

He said if the situation meant that “no one can say” how long the current regime will survive, “I think it has at most a year left, maybe a little more. But maybe in two. weeks, everything changes, nobody knows. “

“Get rid of the diet”

Referring to images of downed Nazarbayev statues as well as Tokayev’s decision to sack his cabinet, Ablyazov said that “people now believe that if they unite they can bring down statues and force the government to resign “.

Nazarbayev handed over the presidency to Tokayev in 2019, but he is still believed to have immense influence thanks to his title as head of the nation.

Amid uncertainty over the whereabouts of the former strongman, Ablyazov said he received information that Nazarbayev and his immediate family fled to the UAE capital Abu Dhabi after storming his home in Kazakhstan’s main city, Almaty.

But it was not possible to independently verify the claim.

Ablyazov, who also told AFP he wanted to meet President Emmanuel Macron, is an extremely controversial figure whom Kazakhstan has tried and sentenced in absentia for murder and embezzlement.

He is also wanted in Russia and spent time in detention in France before France’s highest administrative authority blocked his extradition to Russia in 2016, ruling that the request was politically motivated. He now lives in Paris after obtaining refugee status in France.

Ablyazov, who ran one of Kazakhstan’s biggest banks from 2005 to 2009, said he wanted to be the country’s prime minister in a new parliamentary system where there would be no president.

“The provisional government which overthrows Nursultan Nazarbayev’s regime will be led by me for six months before free elections,” he said.

He also urged Western countries to consider sanctions against Kazakh leaders, noting that its elite were known to have “a lot of strengths” in European capitals like Paris and London.

“Enemy state”

The first units of Russian forces from a Moscow-led contingent have now arrived in Kazakhstan after Tokayev called for the Russian-dominated Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) for help.

Ablyazov said Russian President Vladimir Putin was happy to help with his strategy to “recreate the former USSR”, but said the Kazakhs should view the presence of foreign forces as an “occupation”.

“I urge people to organize strikes and block roads” to protest against their presence in the country, “he said.

He warned Russia that Kazakhstan risked becoming like Ukraine – where anti-Russian sentiment soared after Moscow annexed Crimea and pro-Moscow separatists seized two regions in 2014.

“The more Putin intervenes, the more Kazakhstan will become like Ukraine – an enemy state of Russia.”


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January 5, 1968: the Prague Spring begins https://uaoc.net/january-5-1968-the-prague-spring-begins/ Tue, 04 Jan 2022 22:13:54 +0000 https://uaoc.net/january-5-1968-the-prague-spring-begins/ What would later become the Prague Spring began with the accession, that day in 1968, of reformist Alexander Dubček to the post of first secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Dubček tried to decentralize the economy and ease restrictions on media, freedom of expression and travel for Czech citizens. To reverse these reforms, the […]]]>

What would later become the Prague Spring began with the accession, that day in 1968, of reformist Alexander Dubček to the post of first secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

Dubček tried to decentralize the economy and ease restrictions on media, freedom of expression and travel for Czech citizens.

To reverse these reforms, the Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Jiří Mucha, who wrote “This spring in Prague“(April 1, 1968) for The nation, was a Czech journalist and author who had been arrested, tortured and imprisoned by the government in the early 1950s.

“It seems to me that never since the fall of Stalin there has been so much frank public criticism. The difference is that after Stalin’s comment felt bitter disillusionment, while now there is goodwill and people are ready to lend a hand. After years of banal phrases and resigned weariness, we hear words worth thinking about. “

“It all sounds surprisingly cheerful given the ingrained skepticism of the Czechs, but that’s the sentiment that prevails here today. A tooth that stops hurting produces euphoria, even though you know the hole is still there and eventually needs to be filled. And in any case, I don’t think a return to the old ways is possible. The people now at the top know that they can only be successful if they gain broad popular support. If the public failed to do so, the country would relapse into gloomy indifference and it would be nearly impossible to wake it up. Each new society must recover all the freedoms that were acquired in the past, but which were then lost in the process of gaining more…. If we are successful, we will prove that it has been worth living for the past twenty years.

The changes begin

In February 1968 Dubček gave a speech stressing the need for reform. True to his word, in April he instituted greater freedom of speech, press and movement. He believed that Czechoslovakia should be divided into two countries; he also spoke of the need to limit the power of the secret police. He provided for a ten-year period to bridge the gap between things as they were and the ultimate goal of democratic socialism. It was a surprising announcement.

Reactions abroad

Unsurprisingly, Brezhnev did not approve Dubček’s reform plan. After all, in 1956 Hungary had experienced an uprising against the regulations implemented by the Soviets. At first, the Soviet Union tried to negotiate Dubček out of its decisions. Meetings were held in Slovakia in July and August, during which Dubček declared his support for the Warsaw Pact.

Concessions were made on both sides and the Bratislava Declaration was signed on August 3. Worryingly, the Soviet Union has expressed its intention to invade any member state of the Warsaw Pact that shows signs of returning to a capitalist system.

August 1968

From August 20 to 21, Soviet tanks entered Czechoslovakia. Additional troops have been provided by Poland, Bulgaria and Hungary (although the Hungarian leader initially expressed support for Dubček’s election).

Word spread that an invasion was taking place, and the country took action. The signs indicating the names of the towns were quickly removed and replaced by signs indicating “Dubček”. Others simply indicated the way back to Moscow. Eventually, the troops headed for Prague and took control of the airport.

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Difficult figures: Germany abandons nuclear power, (some) Americans justify anti-government violence, elections in Mali in danger, Scottish witches pardoned https://uaoc.net/difficult-figures-germany-abandons-nuclear-power-some-americans-justify-anti-government-violence-elections-in-mali-in-danger-scottish-witches-pardoned/ Sun, 02 Jan 2022 21:21:52 +0000 https://uaoc.net/difficult-figures-germany-abandons-nuclear-power-some-americans-justify-anti-government-violence-elections-in-mali-in-danger-scottish-witches-pardoned/ Joe Biden: The president asterisk Biden won over 81 million votes in the 2020 presidential election, the highest number of presidential candidates in U.S. history. Would that be enough to give his presidency an air of legitimacy after his predecessor’s claims about electoral inconsistencies? The response became urgent and clear on January 6, 2021, when […]]]>

Joe Biden: The president asterisk

Biden won over 81 million votes in the 2020 presidential election, the highest number of presidential candidates in U.S. history. Would that be enough to give his presidency an air of legitimacy after his predecessor’s claims about electoral inconsistencies?

The response became urgent and clear on January 6, 2021, when rioters supporting Trump stormed the United States Capitol, resulting in destruction and multiple deaths that will forever mar the record of American democracy.

It is not just the rioters who have doubts. A new poll released Tuesday found that 71% of Republicans – a third of the nation – say they still don’t believe Biden’s victory was legitimate.

Political polarization intensified further throughout 2021. Covid vaccine – or not – has become a political statement. Some 60 percent of the unvaccinated identify as Republicans, compared to just 17 percent who are Democrats. This phenomenon is also reflected in very different perceptions of the state of the economic recovery, which remain divided between parties.

As Trump maintains a grip on the GOP, many Republican politicians are realizing that loyalty to the former president is the only way to ensure their political survival (just ask Congresswoman Liz Cheney, who was deleted of his leadership position after rallying to the former president for encouraging the Capitol riot).

A Europe without Merkel

Angela Merkel has been Europe’s focal point for the past 15 years, while leading the EU through a range of challenges, including the eurozone sovereign debt crisis in 2009, as well as a massive wave of refugees in 2015 that sparked a populist tide across much of the continent.

Today, as the omicron wave hits Europe, the challenges facing the Union are intensifying. As the gradual closures continue, will the promised economic relief, made possible in part by Merkel’s leadership, actually be delivered in the years to come? Who will manage the EU’s relations with illiberal governments in Hungary and Poland whose COVID relief funds are contingent on rule of law reforms?

Indeed, Frenchman Emmanuel Macron had tried to position himself as Merkel’s legitimate successor, but as Macron focuses on his own risky re-election prospects in April, no one seems convinced yet – certainly not apart from agitators like the Russian Vladimir Putin, whose aggressive army is heading for the Ukrainian border have recently become much more brazen. Putin saw Merkel as a force to be reckoned with. It is a problem for Europe that no other leader deserves this kind of respect from the Kremlin.

Sino-US relations: strained but could be worse

“After Trump leaves, US-China relations will not be so blatantly divisive,” Eurasia Group analysts wrote earlier this year. This did not entirely turn out to be the case. President Biden has made the fight against China his top foreign policy priority, while a recent Mountain peak between Xi Jinping and Joe Biden has not resulted in any breakthrough.

The two sides remain at odds over trade, technology, Taiwan, the South China Sea and Xinjiang. In addition, Biden recently hosted a world summit on democracy to isolate not only China, but also those who come closer to the rising economic juggernaut. Washington is also investing heavily in partnerships in the Indo-Pacific to create a bulwark against Beijing’s continued expansion of influence.

Yet for the past 12 months, the two leaders have been mightily distracted by domestic crises (for China, it’s about COVID and a plummeting real estate sector; for Biden, it’s COVID and, well, the near collapse of large pieces of his national agenda), proving those who predicted a Cold War-type clash in 2021 wrong.

Latin America: backlash at the polls

The pandemic has compounded many of the social, economic and political woes that have plagued the region for decades. Weak governance, poor infrastructure and economic instability meant that by mid-2021, although they represent only 8 percent of the world’s population, a third of all deaths from COVID have occurred in Latin America. This has changed in recent months as vaccination campaigns have spread.

At the regional level, poverty and inequalities have worsened – with the use rate now 11 percentage points lower than before the pandemic.

This continued economic deterioration has provided an opening for political outsiders who have capitalized on disillusionment with the incumbents. In Argentina, the ruling coalition, led by the Peronista party, has lost control of both houses of parliament for the first time since democracy was restored almost 40 years ago. In a similar sign of frustration, the small Central American nation of Honduras recently overthrew President Juan Orlando Hernandez – who ruled the country for nearly a decade – in favor of a leftist woman who has never previously held elected office. Meanwhile, Chileans, also disappointed with inequalities exacerbated by the pandemic, recently voted for a 35-year-old former student activist.

Sigh … 2021 was to be the year of hot vaxx summer, masquerade vacations and unruly office Christmas parties. This was not the case. Hoping 2022 will be kinder to all of us.

Keep an eye out: On January 3, 2022, Eurasia Group will abandon the Top Risks report for 2022.


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Global retreat from the United States? – Newspaper https://uaoc.net/global-retreat-from-the-united-states-newspaper/ Sat, 01 Jan 2022 02:03:51 +0000 https://uaoc.net/global-retreat-from-the-united-states-newspaper/ The end of the US military occupation of Afghanistan and the return of the Taliban to power have sparked an intense debate over the future goals and directions of US foreign policy. The main question is whether the US military withdrawal from Afghanistan foreshadows the weakening of American resolve, diminishing power, and reducing its global […]]]>

The end of the US military occupation of Afghanistan and the return of the Taliban to power have sparked an intense debate over the future goals and directions of US foreign policy. The main question is whether the US military withdrawal from Afghanistan foreshadows the weakening of American resolve, diminishing power, and reducing its global commitments to maintain world domination and uphold the world order established by the United States. him with his allies in the aftermath of World War II.

It should be remembered that the Soviet Union‘s military withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 ultimately led to its Cold War defeat and disintegration. But the USSR was in a particularly weak position when it encountered its military setback in Afghanistan. Economically it was in decline, strategically overwhelmed, internationally isolated, and ideologically and politically it was a sick state, torn by dissent. The Soviet military debacle in Afghanistan dealt the final blow to a political edifice that was ripe for collapse.

The United States is committed to a policy of containment of China.

The American position is not comparable to that of the Soviet Union after its military withdrawal from Afghanistan. Despite the strategic blunders that led to its unceremonious withdrawal from Afghanistan, the U.S. economy remains the largest in the world with the most advanced technologies and enormous global influence both bilateral and multilateral through political and financial institutions. international. Its economy, along with that of the European Union, which is closely linked to the United States, accounts for about 45 percent of global GDP.

Militarily, too, the United States is the most powerful nation in the world. His advantage over his rivals increases if we take into account the support of his allies. If one combines American hard power with its soft power, it remains and will probably remain ahead of any challenger for at least the next two to three decades. It would therefore be a huge mistake to underestimate the global power and influence of the United States or to predict a precipitous withdrawal of the United States from its overseas commitments during this period.

Read: As he leaves Afghanistan, the ghostly picture books of the US general make history

However, in China, which has experienced extremely high economic growth over the past four decades and is now rapidly strengthening its military might and developing advanced technologies, the United States faces a formidable challenger in the economic, technological fields. and long-term military. If current trends continue, the tipping point in favor of China could come after 2050, when China becomes the most economically and militarily powerful country in the world. Undoubtedly, the growing rivalry between the United States and China would be the defining feature of international politics in the 21st century. This is not to deny the strategic implications of an assertive Russia, which, under Vladimir Putin, resists NATO’s eastward expansion, especially in Ukraine, and the possibility of the emergence of other great powers.

China’s strategic challenge will come in the form of demands to restructure the current US-dominated world order to accommodate China’s legitimate political, security, economic, financial and trade interests. These demands will meet with resistance from the United States. Therefore, the Indo-Pacific region is likely to experience growing tensions and even local conflicts due to issues such as Taiwan and China’s attempts to expand its power into its southern and eastern peripheries.

As evidenced by President Joe Biden’s recent conversation with his Chinese counterpart, the United States is firmly committed to China’s containment policy. It thus strengthens its alliances in the Indo-Pacific region in the form of Quad and Aukus. The growing strategic partnership between the United States and India is part of the grand American design to contain China.

In the short and medium term, the United States due to the favorable balance of power can successfully resist China’s strategic challenge. However, if current trends continue, the United States will be forced in the long run to adjust its policies and reduce its overseas commitments to satisfy China’s legitimate interests.

Read: America’s Chinese Concern

Pakistan has no choice but to seek closer strategic cooperation with China to correct the power imbalance that US policies are creating in our region due to its growing strategic cooperation with India. In this context, CPEC presents enormous strategic and economic advantages for Pakistan. However, Pakistan should also do its best to maintain friendly relations and cooperation with the United States in areas where their interests converge, while being aware of the potential and limitations of such cooperation in the emerging strategic scenario. .

The writer is a retired ambassador, author and chairman of the Lahore Council for World Affairs.

javid.husain@gmail.com

Posted in Dawn, January 1, 2022


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Mongolia’s Path to Democratic Revolution – The Diplomat https://uaoc.net/mongolias-path-to-democratic-revolution-the-diplomat/ Thu, 30 Dec 2021 13:09:50 +0000 https://uaoc.net/mongolias-path-to-democratic-revolution-the-diplomat/ Advertising It is December 10, 1989. A Mongolian band sings “The Sound of a Bell” in Sukhbaatar Square – symbolically awakening the Mongolian population and welcoming democracy. At this time, the Soviet Union was on the verge of disintegration. Although Mongolia was never a Soviet republic, the solid decades-old relationship, the planned economy, and the […]]]>

It is December 10, 1989. A Mongolian band sings “The Sound of a Bell” in Sukhbaatar Square – symbolically awakening the Mongolian population and welcoming democracy. At this time, the Soviet Union was on the verge of disintegration. Although Mongolia was never a Soviet republic, the solid decades-old relationship, the planned economy, and the significant financial support suddenly changed, leaving Ulaanbaatar to find its own democratic means to develop, grow and develop. prosper.

The collapse of the Soviet Union was indeed a glimpse into Mongolia’s political, economic and social transformation. Mongolia’s rulers have also had to transform. For many decades Mongolian intellectuals have been trained in Marxist-Leninist ideology and policy making. Between the 1970s and 1980s, students who would later become rulers of Mongolia studied abroad in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Irkutsk, and Ulan-Ude. The ideological and practical transformation had to start from the top.

Faced with the rise of popular protests and hunger strikes, the leaders of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) have refused the use of force and have been open to dialogue and negotiation. In an interview, the last leader of socialist Mongolia, J. Batmunkh said that “the demonstrations and protests were something new to us. I gave them instructions that they should not use force under any circumstances. No force should be used. There is no need to use the police or involve the military. The organizers of these movements and demonstrations should be responsible for social order. In fact, these protesters, participants and protesters are our children. “

The resignation of the government of J. Batmunkh put an end to the one-party rule in Mongolia. The emergence of the Mongolian Social Democratic Party and the Mongolian National Democratic Party, together forming the Democratic Union Coalition, has brought Mongolia into a new era of semi-parliamentary system. The first political change in Mongolia took place during the 1993 presidential election. The first democratically elected President of Mongolia, Ochirbat Punsalmaa, wrote in his memoir “Heaven Time,” which the June 10 edition of the French newspaper Le Monde said “Ochirbat dramatically defeated his opponent, who had been nominated by the Communist Party. ”

The singularity of the Mongolian revolutionary process deserves to be underlined. Nothing predestined the country to experience such a development at a time when the Soviet Union had not yet collapsed and so soon after China, a few months earlier, had crushed the revolt of its youth in the square. Tiananmen.

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The relative ease of the revolution was the result of a convergence between the reformers of the democratic movement and those of the dominant party. At the time, many agreed that the change had to be profound to pull the country out of the doldrums of the 1980s, a decade of stagnation. Above all, many saw the course of events as a historic opportunity to break with Soviet tutelage and regain full independence and sovereignty. The events of the winter of 1989-1990 therefore constituted a national revolution. It allowed Mongolia to fully assert its independence and sovereignty.

To keep the promises of the revolution, the Mongols gradually designed their own political and economic system. The democratization of Mongolia required a new constitution, filled with legislative and executive powers to support the country’s emerging economic policies.

Since the adoption of a new constitution – after two years of debate – Mongolian voters have agreed that power should be distributed among the three branches of the state: the Speaker of Parliament, the Prime Minister and the President. Initially thought of as a semi-presidential system, the Mongolian political regime gradually evolved into a fully-fledged parliamentary regime following two constitutional amendments adopted in 2000 and 2019. The choice of a parliamentary system was presented at the time as a tool to limit foreign influence on Mongolian decision-making.

The collapse of the Soviet Union hampered Mongolia’s economy, foreign investment and joint projects in general. The sudden change resulted in sudden privatization, price liberalization and the sale of all livestock. In addition, Mongolia was already facing a large external debt to the Soviet Union.

Former Prime Minister P. Jasrai wrote: “In view of the historical turning points of Mongolia, Mongolia became a member of COMECON [from the 1960s to the 1990s]. Because Mongolia was one of the weakest members of the economic group – in order to engage with others economically – it sought to attract foreign investment by receiving grants, subsidized loans, and creating joint ventures. Although the construction project was not trivial, in the end, the amount of external debt increased enormously.

In order for Mongolia to rejuvenate its economy according to the capitalist school of thought, policy makers abandoned the planned economy. Moreover, to promote a new era of economic growth, the Mongolian authorities have chosen a radical transition process based on the “shock theory”.

A gradual transition was difficult to envisage because of the structural dependence on the Soviet economy and the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) of the USSR. The transition resulted in a violent economic crisis.

Mongolia’s GDP did not reach its 1989 level until 2003, while the volume of foreign trade returned to its 1989 level in 2004. Unemployment and hyperinflation created social hardship culminating with the ration tickets in early 1990s. Due to the magnitude of the crisis, the years after 1990 are considered a “lost decade” for Mongolia. Policymakers needed to capitalize on Mongolia’s comparative advantages, primarily the country’s natural resources, coal and copper.

Moreover, at the end of the Batmunkh era, most of the COMECON countries faced similar economic challenges. It also meant competition for financial and economic resources. Mongolia has sought to strengthen its already established diplomatic ties, focusing primarily on economic issues and seeking assistance from donors beyond Russia and China. Mongolia looked to the four “Asian Tiger” economies – South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan – as examples of successful development models. Former Prime Minister Jasrai Puntsag wrote in his memoir: “If you were to say that Batmunkh only understood this in 1989, that would be a big misconception. In 1985, Mongolia’s foreign policy took a new direction. During those years, we started to strengthen Mongolian relations with Japan, China and establish bilateral relations with South Korea. We aimed to strengthen the economy and trade, science and technology and development in the humanities sector.

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the brutal democratic revolution deprived Mongolia of the security guarantees offered by the Soviet Union and forced it to ensure its own independence and the protection of its sovereignty. This situation has led the authorities to formalize an innovative and original strategic response that plays on the democratic specificity claimed by Mongolia. This strategic approach is based on three priorities. Mongolian diplomatic efforts are primarily aimed at developing friendly relations with its two geographic neighbors, Russia and China. Mongolian diplomacy then focused on developing and strengthening privileged relations with democratic and developed countries, its “third-party neighbors”. In this pursuit, Mongolia has successfully established strategic partnerships with Russia and China, and neighboring third countries around the world in addition to its international peacekeeping operations.

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As Mongolia recently celebrated the 110th anniversary of the establishment of Mongolian diplomacy, the country is moving forward with a strong foreign policy that engages the country in regional and global affairs. The collapse of the Soviet Union transformed Mongolia, but Mongolia’s peaceful democratic revolution remains the keystone of Mongolia’s multi-pillar foreign policy approach that protects Mongolia’s national interests.


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How Finns sabotaged Red Army retreat with Polka music https://uaoc.net/how-finns-sabotaged-red-army-retreat-with-polka-music/ Tue, 28 Dec 2021 18:01:43 +0000 https://uaoc.net/how-finns-sabotaged-red-army-retreat-with-polka-music/ The war between Finland and the Soviet Union was cold, not only in terms of the temperatures on the ground during the fighting, but also in terms of the feelings each side had for each other. Before World War II broke out in Europe, the Soviet Union invaded Finland in a war of expansion. He […]]]>

The war between Finland and the Soviet Union was cold, not only in terms of the temperatures on the ground during the fighting, but also in terms of the feelings each side had for each other.

Before World War II broke out in Europe, the Soviet Union invaded Finland in a war of expansion. He was finally able to secure concessions from the Finns before a peace treaty was imposed on Finland.

The treaty gave eight percent of Finland to the USSR, and the Finns were not happy with it, considering that they were inflicting so much damage on the Red Army. Finland was determined to recover these lost areas one way or another. The 1940 peace deal lasted 15 months, until Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Finland joined the Germans in what it called the Continuation War.

The Continuation War was just as harsh as the Winter War (or the First Soviet-Finnish War, whichever story you choose). The Finns inflicted a surprisingly asymmetric number of casualties on the Soviet Union, with the highest estimates reaching nearly a million Soviets killed, wounded and missing, compared to a quarter of that of Finland.

Many casualties on both sides are due to the brutality of the fighting itself. It was the war where Finnish troops and partisans perfected the Molotov cocktail, where the Finns exposed trapped Russian soldiers so they could shoot at the soldiers who tried to help, and the Finns divided and slaughtered wholesale Red Army units in motti attacks.

Foreign press in Mainila, where a border incident between Finland and the Soviet Union escalated into war. (Wikimedia Commons)

The Karelian Isthmus was one of the places the Finns wanted to reclaim. Karelia was, according to them, taken away from them by the Moscow peace treaty of 1940, and this traditionally Finnish region was keen to return to Finnish hands.

When the Soviets were forced to withdraw from the Karelian city of Viipuri (now Vyborg), they scattered radio-controlled anti-personnel mines throughout the city. The Finnish army, taking the city, discovered the mines, but not the means to detonate them. To the Finns, it seemed like the explosions were happening almost at random.

At first they thought the mines were triggered by timing devices, but after a 1,200 pound bomb was discovered under the Moonlight Bridge, Finnish engineers began a suddenly urgent mission to find ways to detonate the mines. To begin with, they began to interrogate Soviet prisoners of war.

These prisoners of war revealed that the Red Army could detonate mines from a distance with a three-string radio transmission signaled at a specific frequency. The Finns, in order to disrupt Soviet transmissions, rigged a broadcast car with the Säkkijärvi polka – also known as the Karelian-Finnish polka “- which would disrupt incoming Soviet signals.

Soon the mines became less threatening, but the Soviets began to transmit their signals in triplicate. The Finns soon discovered that the Soviets transmitted on three frequencies, so the Finns had to get another broadcast signal to play the polka.

For three months, the wave polka battle continued as Soviet troops attempted to destroy the city from a distance and Finnish engineers attempted to dismantle the Red Army mines, all in the midst of a stream. constant disturbing polka music. Ultimately, even if the engineers could find and finish all the mines, the mines would run out of battery. The Finns won the day with the polka.


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How strange to see your country die https://uaoc.net/how-strange-to-see-your-country-die/ Sun, 26 Dec 2021 16:59:24 +0000 https://uaoc.net/how-strange-to-see-your-country-die/ During the last years of Soviet communism, the English-speaking media focused heavily on political developments in the western regions of the USSR, with an occasional glance at the Caucasus. It was the events in Moscow that precipitated the final rupture in 1991. But the Soviet Union was a vast multinational territory, stretching from the Atlantic […]]]>

On the day of my country’s death, the famous ballet by Pyotr Tchaikovsky Swan Lake was in the foreground on television. I was fifteen, and like all the other students, I was on summer vacation, so I was free to do just about anything that day.

I woke up after 9 a.m. and my parents were talking quietly about something I couldn’t quite understand. Of course, they were still whispering if there was a sleeping family member in the apartment. As my younger brother was still sleeping when I got up, my parents’ calm voices did not alarm me at first.

But when my brother got up and we tried to turn on the TV, our parents told us not to disturb. Our Rassvet television received exactly two channels, and both showed the ballet Swan Lake.

Now there is nothing inherently wrong with Swan Lake, but something was wrong with the fact that the regular programming of both channels had been replaced by ballet for no apparent reason. And my parents kept whispering, even after my brother woke up.

At breakfast we finished the last bread with tea. Mom sent me to the bakery to buy some fresh bread. I put on a light salmon colored tank top with a photo of three pencils on the front (the top was bought at the recently opened second-hand clothing store that sold western goods) and a two-tiered skirt red and white my mom made for me that summer.

The style of my new skirt was very trendy and I felt special to have a red skirt in my wardrobe. I also felt proud of the tank top because it looked western and very artistic, and I was interested in drawing at the time.

I was only beginning to scratch the surface of what it was like to dress in clothes that make you happy. My childhood buddies never paid attention to clothes because our parents usually chose our clothes from what was available in stores, and most of the kids had similar, if not the same clothes.

We differentiate ourselves by the way we behave towards others, not by the clothes we wear. If everyone is wearing boring clothes, you start to pay attention to personality. But my outfit that day made me feel happy – for no other reason than the clothes themselves.

Before I left the apartment, my parents told me not to tell anyone about what was happening on TV. I felt confused. How could I tell anyone about what was happening on TV? Why can’t I talk about the problem with the TV channels? And what could I have said, even if I wanted to tell someone about it?

It would be trivial to complain about a technical problem. And why would I want to talk to someone anyway? Even in our small town, people weren’t chatting with strangers in the bread queue. I figured I could meet someone I knew and tell them about programming today. But what could be wrong as a result? My parents’ warning troubled me, yet I didn’t ask any questions.

I came out ; it was very hot and gray. Our town only had a handful of car owners, and most people walked or took the bus to get around. But that August day, there were so few people outside that I was pissed off. The five-minute walk to the bread counter was short and uneventful, but filled with a gnawing feeling, as if something horrible was going on, but I had no way of knowing what it was. ‘was.

I didn’t know what to think as I walked to my destination. Instead, I thought about the wonderful taste of the freshly made short baguettes with the sweet and buttered crumble on top. My mom gave me money to buy both the sweet baguettes and the regular bread. I loved the sweet baguettes because they unwound into fragrant, fresh and airy sheets of bread flesh with an incredibly crispy crust around the edges.

The bakery had only recently introduced this new bread and it was a hit with customers. Everyone loved having the sweet chopsticks with sweet black tea and a lemon wedge added for that little kick of spice. Those who could afford real butter loved these baguettes even more. Our family would buy butter twice a month at a local bazaar, and we would slice it very thin when we ate it.

We had four people who loved butter and a single little oval of handmade butter treasure for everyone. Butter, eggs, and meat were very expensive so we ate a lot of noodles without eggs and made a lot of predominantly vegetable soups. And we ate a lot of bread, of course. Tea, bread and jam were our breakfast champions. Adding butter to the mixture made it the breakfast of the gods.

The line for bread was short with only three people in front of me. Two of them spoke grimly. I just grabbed the edge of a sentence, uttered in a tone like a hiss: “The USSR has collapsed. The sound of those words enveloped me like a million gallons of aerosolized soot. I felt completely disoriented, as if someone had taken my brain away, but signals from the outside world kept coming in, only to find that the command center was empty.

My eyes didn’t know what to focus on. My heart plunged through my feet somewhere to the core of the Earth. I was trying to imagine what life could be like without the USSR, but no image occurred to me. I had no idea what would happen if the USSR really collapsed.

Now Swan Lake on both TV channels suddenly made sense. I wasn’t sure if the USSR had indeed collapsed, but the pieces of the puzzle suddenly came together. The whisper of my parents. The empty streets. The unease palpable in the air.

I felt like I had run through a beautiful landscape to stop to catch my breath and discover that I had unconsciously balanced myself on the edge of a high cliff that has fallen into oblivion, a chasm bottomless. The world has become terrifying. My sense of stability, my place in the world, everything I had known suddenly shattered.

It was only later that I understood what the bottomless abyss of a future without the USSR looked like in real terms. The local industry came to a screeching halt. Job losses. A burgeoning nationalism that made a walk outside after dark a life and death proposition. Massive exodus of Soviet Germans. The change of the official language and the resulting loss of a large number of Russian-speaking families.

Half of my classmates moved to Russia in the years that followed. Others went to Germany. Many people I knew had moved to another country when I returned to visit in 1997. I was unable to visit any of my friends as they were scattered all over Russia and Germany. The same loss of friends happened to my parents. Most of our family also went north.

Now, if we wanted to see all of our loved ones, we had to stop over in four countries. No more summer family reunions under the vine vault in the courtyard of the grandparents’ house. No more visiting friends. No more tea in the kitchen with classmates. No more daily phone calls with friends. More community of people united by common experiences and inside jokes.

So many years later, writing down my memories of that day made me cry unexpectedly. I forgot the disorientation, the loss of hope, the fear and the despair that my family experienced when our country died.

The USSR was a lot of things; most of them were terrible and bossy, yes, I don’t dispute that. But that was never my family’s experience, and the loss of the USSR – as the structure that held us in place and protected us from being thrown into open space – was the most fundamental loss of all my life.

I immigrated to the United States a few years after the collapse of the USSR, but it took me eighteen years to overcome the grief of losing my country. And even now, I’m not quite sure that, if given the chance, I wouldn’t go back in time to live my Soviet life.


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Armenian-American groups fight COVID disinformation https://uaoc.net/armenian-american-groups-fight-covid-disinformation/ Fri, 24 Dec 2021 19:18:31 +0000 https://uaoc.net/armenian-american-groups-fight-covid-disinformation/ In Armenia, it is estimated that less than a quarter of residents had been vaccinated against COVID-19 by mid-December, even as the country fired vaccinated tourists. The numbers are nowhere near as striking in Glendale and Los Angeles neighborhoods such as Little Armenia, Thai Town, and Sunland-Tujunga – areas that are hubs for one of […]]]>

In Armenia, it is estimated that less than a quarter of residents had been vaccinated against COVID-19 by mid-December, even as the country fired vaccinated tourists.

The numbers are nowhere near as striking in Glendale and Los Angeles neighborhoods such as Little Armenia, Thai Town, and Sunland-Tujunga – areas that are hubs for one of the largest populations of Armenians outside. of Armenia.

But they have fallen behind the Los Angeles County average, troubling some community leaders and doctors who fear the lingering distrust of government – resulting from genocide, upheaval and a precarious history. in other countries – made it more difficult to influence some American Armenians to get the blows.

For immigrants from the former Soviet Union, “there was no trust or credibility in the government,” Assembly member Adrin Nazarian (D-North Hollywood) said. Other Armenians from countries like Iran, Lebanon and Syria, he said, faced “civil wars, internal conflicts, fear of reprisals.”

All of this has caused “a lot of concern to just go along with what the government tells them,” Nazarian said.

It is not clear whether reluctance or refusal of the vaccine is more pronounced among American Armenians than any other group in LA County, as public health officials do not follow them as a group. But Nazarian drew attention to the numbers in areas like Little Armenia, where only 56.6% of eligible residents were fully immunized by mid-December, compared to 70% countywide.

In Glendale, where more than a third of residents are estimated to be of Armenian descent, the vaccination rate was 62.1%.

Vic Keossian said in parks in Glendale she heard old men playing chess repeat the same doubts that have plagued public health across the county. “They have all this distrust of the vaccine,” Keossian said.

And the false claims about the gunshots causing infertility had a special resonance in her community, she said, due to the trauma that reverberates through her story.

“Armenians just have a different connection, I think, with fertility after going through genocide,” said Keossian, who works for the Armenian Relief Society of Western USA as a program supervisor for a community equity fund. County COVID-19. “It’s something that’s really embedded in us.”

Immunization rates have been extremely low in Armenia itself. By early November, only 12% of adults there were fully vaccinated against COVID-19, according to a presentation by the country’s health ministry. The numbers have risen dramatically since then, reaching around 32% of Armenian adults in mid-December, but have remained lower than in neighboring countries, according to statistics tracked by Our world in data.

Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, Armenians had lower confidence levels in vaccines than most of the European region, according to a study published in the Lancet. Dr Vicken Sepilian, member of the board of directors of the Armenian American Medical Society, said that in Armenia such attitudes have been exacerbated by problems with the deployment of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

For people who rely heavily on Armenia’s news and social media, “it all reverberated through our Armenian communities here,” Sepilian said.

In the United States, “you see him among the people who have the most direct ties to Armenia,” said Armine Lulejian, clinical assistant professor of population and public health sciences at the Keck School of Medicine. USC. Among American Armenians who emigrated from Armenia, “they have this backlash against anything ‘Big Brother’-ly since the collapse of the Soviet Union. If the government says so, it is against it.

Eric Hacopian, a political consultant for the LA candidates who currently resides in Armenia, also questioned “a feed loop of disinformation” that can be particularly powerful among immigrants from the former Soviet Union or from the United States. much of the Middle East who see little credibility in state authorities or the media.

“Social media allows everyone to stay in touch with their home country,” Hacopian said. “They will stay in touch with the good and they will stay in touch with the bad.”

Some believe that the ravages of last year’s war between Armenia and Azerbaijan are also at stake. For many American Armenians, “I feel like COVID has taken a back seat because of this. that people have been through, ”said Talar Aintablian, director of operations for the human services division of the Armenian Relief Society of Western USA.

In Glendale, vaccination numbers have dropped dramatically among older people, with 75.4% were fully vaccinated by mid-December, up from 88% of seniors across LA County.

Officials in the city of Glendale said they have worked with the county to set up vaccination clinics at trusted sites, including St. Mary’s Armenian Apostolic Church, and have recorded COVID-19 vaccine videos with doctors known to the Armenian community.

Among them is Dr. Haig Aintablian, a UCLA emergency doctor who has been vaccinated publicly and has spoken about it on TV in Armenian. The doctor said he was blunt about the suffering and death he saw from the virus.

“We need more Armenians who have seen COVID,” he said. But Armenian American residents who have suffered from the virus are sometimes afraid to speak out about the matter, he said, “because it will result in vaccine pressure.”

The Glendale Public Library also ran online trainings for people to become ‘vaccine influencers’, but only one person attended the Armenian training and disappeared in the end without asking questions, said Evelyn Aghekian. , a library assistant who led the presentation.

Aghekian said that when she sat down with Armenian-language flyers for the event outside the Glendale Galleria, some people praised the awareness, but for others, “they come, they take the paper, they look at me, shake their heads and walk away. “

“But they took the paper,” she added.

In November, Assembly member Nazarian helped organize a YouTube event featuring Armenian American doctors talking about COVID-19 vaccines. The trio of doctors countered common misinformation about injections and explained why vaccines are still recommended for people who have already been infected with COVID-19.

During the live event, some viewers accused Nazarian and the medics of being traitors. One person commented in the online chat that they were “hiding the truth from your own community”, adding an Armenian term which roughly translates to “backstabbers”.

At one point, Nazarian asked panelists to respond to a commentator’s statement on cancer-causing vaccines. Dr Jack Der-Sarkissian, family doctor at Kaiser Permanente, replied: “I don’t know where the basis for this concern would be.

He explained that cancer is a form of DNA damage and reiterated that COVID-19 vaccines do not alter the DNA of recipients. Still, Der-Sarkissian said: “I would never dismiss a concern. I think that’s the science.

Der-Sarkisian said the concerns he had heard from Armenian American patients were not drastically different from others, but he was surprised that the vaccine reluctance “seems to have united the community. in a way that I hadn’t anticipated “.

The doctor said the reaction appeared to be shaped by the recent war, which he described as a loss and an experience of perceived abandonment which “deeply touched not only the people in Armenia, but the people here in Los Angeles”.

Nazarian also pointed out the heartache and trauma of war.

“You let the world go completely silent as this tiny little country fought for itself,” he said. For a community that has waited decades for a sitting US president to recognize the Armenian genocide, this sense of international indifference “has simply lent itself to further mistrust.”

George Lousparian, a construction contractor who lives in Sunland-Tujunga, said many people in his culture are suspicious of the government about the experiences they or their families had in Turkey, Iran or under Soviet regimes. But he said his own concerns about vaccines stemmed from shifting messages from U.S. government officials.

He cited changing guidelines at the start of the pandemic on masks, as well as emerging information about declining vaccine protection and the need for booster vaccines. “With so many inconsistencies, how can I trust him? ” He asked. “My skepticism is not due to being Armenian or not. I make decisions based on the data available.

LA County public health officials said that since May, more than a dozen agencies partnering with the county have educated more than 8,300 Armenian American residents about the vaccines. The Armenian American Medical Society has partnered with Glendale and the county to provide health information at vaccination clinics outside of the Glendale Galleria.

The Armenian Relief Society of Western USA also organized vaccination clinics at its headquarters in Glendale, sent Armenian-speaking volunteers to vaccination clinics, translated public health information into Armenian, and surveyed parks and other gathering places. in Glendale postal codes with particularly low vaccination rates.

“Sometimes people are ready to hear what we have to say,” said Suzy Petrossian, project coordinator with ARS Western USA. “And other times we get a lot of ‘No we don’t want it, it’s all made up.'”

Some just say “Kuh mtatzem“- or” I’ll think about it. “Case manager Ani Tangyan lets them know that she will be there if they want help with the snapshots.

“After a month, two months, they come back,” Tangyan said, and they asked, “Where is this girl?

Times writer Hamlet Nalbandyan contributed to this report.


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US Air Force B-2 stealth bomber caught on Google Earth https://uaoc.net/us-air-force-b-2-stealth-bomber-caught-on-google-earth/ Thu, 23 Dec 2021 07:02:23 +0000 https://uaoc.net/us-air-force-b-2-stealth-bomber-caught-on-google-earth/ A $ 2 billion B-2 Spirit stealth bomber is now visible on Google Earth after a Reddit user shared a photo of the plane flying over a farmer’s field in Missouri. The user, as Hippowned, posted the photo of Davis, Missouri on Monday, which has since drawn considerable attention to their feed. The B-2 Spirit […]]]>

A $ 2 billion B-2 Spirit stealth bomber is now visible on Google Earth after a Reddit user shared a photo of the plane flying over a farmer’s field in Missouri.

The user, as Hippowned, posted the photo of Davis, Missouri on Monday, which has since drawn considerable attention to their feed.

The B-2 Spirit stealth bombers were designed and manufactured by military technology supplier Northrop Grumman and took flight in 1989.

The plane is said to be one of 21 and is said to be based at Whiteman Air Force Base, which is only about 20 miles south of where it was spotted.

Besides the image, the Reddit user also added the coordinates of the stealth bomber which can be viewed on Google Earth at 39 01 18.5N 93 35 40.5W.

The Reddit post has since racked up 109,000 upvotes and 3,000 comments. A short video from YouTuber My Garden Channel zooming in on the stealth bomber has also since been posted.

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A photo of a B-2 Spirit stealth bomber was posted on Reddit Monday after it was seen flying over a farmer’s field in Davis, Missouri

The stealth bomber is now visible on Google Earth at 39 01 18.5N 93 35 40.5W

The stealth bomber is now visible on Google Earth at 39 01 18.5N 93 35 40.5W

The B-2 Spirit was created for the United States Air Force as a method of silently sneaking into enemy territory, such as the Soviet Union, to transport nuclear weapons there.

“The B-2 is designed to fly through the maelstrom when Los Angeles is on fire and GPS signals are scrambled,” William Langewiesche said in a 2018 article for the Atlantic.

“It is designed to defeat the most advanced air defense systems in the world. In addition to its conventional navigation capabilities, it has autonomous systems that operate independently of any transmitter on the ground or in space. ‘

The plane is also 69 feet long and 17 feet high with a wingspan of 172 feet – half the length of a football field, according to Newsweek.

The structure can also carry up to 20 tons and is known for its impressive speed.

“The B-2 can travel 6000 nautical miles without refueling and 10,000 nautical miles with a single refueling,” according to the manufacturer’s website. “It can reach any point in the world in a matter of hours.” It can also reach heights of up to 50,000 feet.

In addition to its military advances, the bomber also has a toilet, microwave, coolers, rest area and “extremely comfortable” cockpit seats, according to Langewiesche.

The $ 2 billion B-2 Spirit stealth bomber was created and designed by military technology company Northrop Grumman and took to the skies in 1989

The $ 2 billion B-2 Spirit stealth bomber was created and designed by military technology company Northrop Grumman and took to the skies in 1989

The aircraft was designed to sneak into enemy lines, such as the Soviet Union, and carry nuclear weapons

The aircraft was designed to sneak into enemy lines, such as the Soviet Union, and carry nuclear weapons

The B-2 Spirit also has quite a story as it has stealthily traversed enemy lines for various missions.

“During its legendary combat debut in Operation Allied Force, the stealth bomber flew less than 1% of total missions, but destroyed 33% of targets in the first eight weeks of conflict,” Northop said. Grumman.

“The B-2 also set a record with a 44-hour air combat mission in 2001. Its ability to penetrate enemy territory undetected is the reason it was called to duty in the opening phases of several conflicts, including Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Odyssey Dawn and Operation Odyssey Lightning. ‘

The Air Force plans to spend around $ 203 billion on a new B-21 Raider that will have at least 100 models.

“Designed to operate in the high-end threat environment of tomorrow, the B-21 will play a critical role in ensuring America’s sustainable air power capability,” the Air Force wrote.

The new bombers would cost around $ 639 million in 2019 dollars, according to Task & Purpose.

However, the Model B-2 can currently be used for online viewing on Google Maps.

The plane is 69 feet long and 17 feet high with a wingspan of 172 feet

The plane is 69 feet long and 17 feet high with a wingspan of 172 feet

It can travel 6,000 nautical miles without refueling and 10,000 nautical miles with a single refueling and reach up to 50,000 feet

It can travel 6,000 nautical miles without refueling and 10,000 nautical miles with a single refueling and reach up to 50,000 feet

The app credited Maxar Technologies for the stellar capture of the aircraft.

“To create a satellite image, we choose three bands and represent them each in shades of red, green, or blue,” NASA said on its website.

“Because most visible colors can be created by combining red, green, and blue light, we then combine the red, green, and blue scale images to get a color representation of the world. “

Despite high praise for the post, Reddit user Hippowned has since given Scott Wagner full credit after finding the image in a Facebook group.

“Although Reddit was not the first site it appeared on, the fact that none of the 100,000 Redditors who voted it, let alone the countless others who saw it, suggests to me that that’s a pretty new discovery. Editors love to call reruns, you see! ”they said, according to Newsweek.


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